Sunday, July 21, 2019

BP Commerce Analysis

BP Commerce Analysis I believe strongly that we need a work environment where everyone can bring all of themselves to work every day and not feel like they have to be someone else in order to succeed. -Tony Hayward, BP CEO /BP is one of the largest organizations in oil, gas, and alternative energy industry in the world. It employs more than 100 000 people across the world and provides essential oil, gas, and energy products for nearly 13 million customers every day in more than 100 countries. The company has a wide range of businesses including exploration and production, refining and marketing, gas power, and alternative energy (BP, 2010). Despite the success in the market or economic downturns, organization always must care about their employees who bring this success through skills, competencies, and hard work. Therefore, company must have a diversity and inclusion policy in place in order to create perfect working environment for these employees, to motivate them, remunerate, and retain the best. We might ask ourselves why diversity and inclusion is so important to any large or small company. The answer is that employees, shareholders, customers, suppliers, and community partners place a high value on organization for being fair and meritocratic (BP, 2010). Furthermore, we need to recognize the availability of skilled employees is getting smaller in nowadays market and economic situation. Every organization tries to attract new skilled labor and to retain talented employees in the company. In order to achieve that, organizations must have reputation, operational processes and imbedded policies, working climate that not only respects differences, but expose them for competitive advantage. BP is a multinational organization and it is essential to have an up-to-date policies and procedures in place for evaluation and monitoring purposes in order to comply with equality and inclusion policies, avoid any kind of discrimination, and ensure equal opportunities for everyone. Different organizations have different policies and practices and in order to compare BP to others, this organizational audit will review BPs other main competitors such as Exxon and Shell for a comparison on diversity and inclusion issues, provide investigation summary of BPs equal opportunity and equal pay practices, and provide action plans and cost and benefit analysis in order to enhance equality and diversity practice in the organization. A Summary of Analysis The purpose of this project is to produce diversity and inclusion analysis for BPs North Africa Strategic Performance Unit (further NA SPU) based on pay review recommendations in 2009 for employees to be effective on 1st of April 2010. I will be looking at Level E (senior level leaders) to Level K (administration) concentrating on equal pay issues and gender inequality (gaps) among UK employees only. The reason for this is that NA SPU has fairly big population and it is down to UK employees based locally in UK and in the businesses across the world. More to mention, this SPU is a perfect representation sample for other similar strategic performance units across the organization. 270 employees in North Africa Strategic Performance Unit (NA SPU) 139 UK nationals in NA SPU 31 Female employees 108 Male employees Level E (senior level leaders) 7 Males; 0 Females Level F(team leaders/professionals) 26 Males; 2 Females Level G (team leaders/professionals 30 Males; 4 Females Level H (team leaders/professionals 19 Males; 6 Females Level I (specialists/advisors) 17 Males; 8 Females Level J (specialists/advisors) 8 Males; 5 Females Level K (administration) Male 1; 6 Females All analysis is done only for the UK nationals population across all Levels, and Disciplines in NA SPU In order to get a better picture about pay equality and find out if there is any gaps in gender equality it is essential to analyse consistency of Salary Review process across the NA SPU and identify potential inequality in monetary reward between genders in different departments, levels, and across different disciplines. It is important to concentrate on the data which is robust- gender, income, length of service, and grouped by levels and disciplines. The sample group of employees does consist of different levels from E (senior level leaders) to K (administrative employees). It is a healthy business population that depicts statistical average of different employees in SPUs and other businesses within the company. Even though we have split the data down to segments any equal opportunity data is best analysed by working of groups so similar in roles and at similar level can be looked at. In order to understand the data better, I am providing few tables with graphic representation and statistical summary of the proposed data, following the brief comments to bring the main points or anomalies that could be potential gaps in reward and gender equality in the workplace. E F G H I J K Level Average SalaryGraph 1 Average New Salary comparison between Males and Females All Levels Higher level male and female employees positioned on the higher range of average salary scale and lower level male and female employees positioned on the lower range of average salary- it is consistent across every level. As the graph shows all the proposed employee salaries does not have any significant and female and male employees up to level G are similarly positioned on the salary grid. However, I would like to mention that circled in red on the graph data shows that level F female employees are on the lower range of the salary comparing to level F male employees. Picking the fact that there is significantly low number of female workers in higher levels- it raises the question of the possible glass ceiling that prevents female workers to get higher levels and be paid equally. Graph 2 Average New Salary by Job Discipline All Levels This data is very interesting, because it compares proposed new average salary between male and female employees in all levels but grouped by job discipline. The lowest paid group is administration, and the highest paid group of employees are drilling, geosciences disciplines where employees considered as professional and highly skilled workforce. Unfortunately, we notice that in geosciences and petroleum engineering disciplines we a have a significant difference in average salary between male and female employees. This is due to the fact that we have few women who works in these disciplines and the pay equality is very doubtful. On the other hand women earn more in average in the administration and commercial disciplines and we do not have any women working so called male oriented jobs in drilling and maintenance disciplines. This needs more investigation of companys recruitment policies and procedures why company does not attract more women into these jobs. Graph 3 Average New Salary by Years of Service All Levels This graph shows different set of data how the salary progresses depending on length of service despite the level of the employee but across level groups and disciplines. We can notice the gradual increase in salary for women and men, however we have only few women with a lengthy history of employment with company, but the good fact is that more and more women are hired into the business comparing with 20 years ago. It is worth to mention that circled in red- employees appear in the bottom of the range due to lower levels and the job discipline itself (administration). A Discussion of the Meaning of the Data Collected To summarise the findings it is clear that males and females are equally paid and well aligned to each other in every level, but there are few gaps in certain disciplines. Even though the national UK statistics is showing that the pay gap between gender is very high (see appendix 1) BP is trying their best to operate according to Equal Pay Act (release 1970), and Equal Pay between sexes (Article 141, EC Treaty). However the lack of female employees in main leadership positions and levels in our sample population- by all means might be understood as glass ceiling effect in the company (Podro, 2006). Therefore, it is interesting to look deeper into BP diversity and inclusion policy and compare the information to main rival companies policies and think of further improvements and recommendations in order the DI policy in BP policy to be attractive and by no means discriminatory. Table 1 Diversity Policy Comparison between Competitors Recruiting Developing Diversity Inclusive Leadership BP The number of graduates recruited through global recruitment program has increased by 58% since 2005 and 63% of these are engineers or scientists. 35% of all graduate hires were women, while 34% of all graduate hires came from racial or ethnic minorities. Diversity and inclusion policy aims to create a truly inclusive meritocracy at organization, in which the diversity of workforce reflects global reach and maximizes available talent while respecting individual differences. By valuing the differences between employees company establishes a platform for creativity, innovation and problem solving. There is a commitment to the development of a culture of diversity is therefore a true business imperative. Managing Inclusion program is now mandatory for all senior level leaders and by the end of year 2006, around 1000 employees at this level had completed the program. The program is still continues to exist in the organization. Exxon Women comprise about 25 percent of companys worldwide workforce, excluding company-operated retail stores. Approximately 12 percent of executive employees are women, compared to 9 percent in 2000. Organizations strength is the quality and diversity of employees. Organization operates Global Workforce Diversity Framework to attract, develop, and retain a premier workforce, actively foster a work environment where individual and cultural differences are respected and valued; and identify and develop leadership capabilities of employees to perform effectively in a variety of environments. Organization is committed to promoting leadership opportunities for women globally and improving the gender balance in the company. Shell By the end of 2009, 14.0% of the most senior leadership positions were filled by women, up from 13.6% in 2008. As well, 26.4% of supervisory positions (up from 24.7% in 2008) and 16.1% of management positions (up from 15.3% in 2008) were held by women. With a core strategic team in Central HR as well as representatives in organizations businesses worldwide, diversity and inclusiveness is an integral part of the organization. It has a vital part to play in underpinning its continuing success by ensuring attraction, recruitment, and retaining the best people- regardless of their gender, nationality or background. Local people fill senior management positions in every country we operate in. In 37% of countries, local nationals filled more than half the senior leadership positions, compared to 32% in 2008 Sources: BP (2010); Shell (2010); ExxonMobil (2010) 3. An Equality Plan BP has made a significant investment over a short period of time to raise awareness of the importance of diversity and inclusion in the organization. The diversity and inclusion team was reorganized in 2007 in order to shift ownership of diversity and inclusion to the line and embedded in the business to ensure alignment with organizational strategic plans (BP, 2010). This reorganization of the team paid dividends in the sense that the companys diversity and inclusion policy was a driving force in creating engagement in the workplace, changing leadership attitudes, improving performance representation statistics against competitors, and building pride and ownership among employees in different strategic performance units in the organization. To be more specific, in order to achieve desired results there should be a support for leaders and line managers with implementation of a framework that defines the strategy and priorities. The need of advancements or improvements on existing policies and the frameworks are imminent to achieve business goals and improve on diversity issues: Table 2 Diversity Inclusion Development and Maitenance Population Actions Leadership team Governance of diversity and inclusion strategy and periodical reviews of the progress. Ensure objectives embedded within operating business in every strategic performance unit. DI team Developing and proposing strategy, policy, and framework that advocates and supports diversity and inclusion. Cooperating with HR teams and external sources in order to be up to date with the policy and practices. HR team Serving as consultants and advising everyone involved to identify the critical DI areas in the organization that needs improvement. Leading various activities across the business to promote the equal opportunities. BP employees Everyone must take a part in helping the organization to tackle the diversity issues by taking responsibility for diverse behaviour and attitudes. It is essential to participate in creating inclusive working environment using all available tools and support. Having said that, I would like to concentrate on North Africa SPU populations gender equality and equal pay issues and provide recommendations on what can be done to improve situation and to be compliant with BP diversity model and policies: Table 3 Recommendation Costs Issue Target Recommendation Cost Equality in gender workforce Significantly increase the percentage of female employees in senior level jobs Aggressive external recruitment and local talent search via internal recruitment High costs external recruitment and headhunting can be very expensive since there is scarce pool of highly skilled women to fill in senior level positions Minimal costs local talent search via intranet, local recruitment database, and companies internal publications in every form and shape Equal pay across the levels and disciplines Ensure the pay reviews are according to equal pay act and not discriminatory among male and female workers To review the policy of Salary Review procedure and implement a equal pay process that would allow team leaders to have market data during the annual pay conversations Minimal costs internal policy review procedure, and up to line managers responsibility to be up-to-date of legalities Medium costs a market research, investigation new trends, time costs as well implementing, and communicating the new procedures (if any) Equal opportunities for career progression Increase the percentage of female workers in male dominated disciplines (for example geosciences and drilling) Professional development workshops and attractive internship schemes for university graduates Medium costs third party provided courses and development sessions Medium costs graduate recruitment campaigns, including task group time costs, competitive graduate packages to retain the best talents Culture change DI learning sessions / conferences To make aware BP population about internal issues and introduce to internal statistics Reiterate on importance of diverse workforce and how it could be change to achieve diverse working environment Minimal cost lunch and learn sessions, DI team monthly bulletins, presentations Medium costs external investigation or third party conferences and sessions about the different issues of DI On the other hand, some policies might not become a good practice and therefore organization could face a biggest obstacle- its own culture (Kirton and Greene, 2005). Having said that, it is important that organizations do not force the decisions and make the policy unnatural thing. Diversity and inclusion comes along with the culture and one changes another. So, in order to change the rules of the game in nowadays fast changing environment, organizations should come up with diversity audit to highlight the potential gaps. A Cost and Benefit Analysis It is important that leadership of the organization understands that companies that implement workforce diversity policies acquire an important benefits that strengthen not only long-term competitiveness in the market but also produce short and medium-term performance results (CSES, 2003). Therefore, a cost and benefit analysis is widely used to establish how well a planned action or new policy might turn out. The analysis always brings a results into monetary values, so the very important that a cost benefit analysis include all the costs and all the benefits in order to count the true value and establish if the new policy or new action plan is worth the money. On the other hand, companies in most cases gain positive non-monetary benefits. As Hubbard (2004) clearly explained the value of non-monetary benefits- loyalty of the staff, reputation of the organization, employer of the choice status, and etc. can not be transferred or measured into value of money. Also, the major benefit is that making employees and leadership to think critically and be explicit about the issues within the company that along with diversity and inclusion it brings new strategic choices like culture change. Would like to stress on the few diversity and inclusion initiative that BP already is working on, which is with no doubt puts organization in very positive place among the competitors and promotes business success by trying to minimize obstacles to inclusion: Affinity groups- typically form around ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or disabilities, but groups that wish to focus on other important or relevant issues may be considered on a case by case basis, and BP as organization encourages and supports affinity groups working for business benefit (BP, 2010). To name a few, these include the African American Network, Asian American Network, Womens Network, Beyond Pride, BP Latino Network, Gray Matters!, and Working Parents and Parents-to-Be. Flexible working- organization always recognizes that flexible working arrangement is almost a part of the modern working environment and can enable it to retain and attract skilled staff and increase employee commitment and morale. And the most important- the flex-working scheme is an integral part of BPs diversity and inclusion agenda. There are more of these initiatives and groups that work towards developing diverse and inclusive workforce around the world, but of course, there are costs as well associated with the implementation of diversity policies in the organization. Let not forget the cash costs of compliance with laws on discrimination, as well as the investment into programmes that serves as implementation to change internal cultures in the way that the diverse workforce is recruited, retained, and developed (CSES, 2003). To reiterate more on proposed changes for North Africa SPU and diversity and inclusion strategies for BP company as a whole, over recent years, BP has implemented and managed a wide range of global and local diversity and inclusion training programs and initiatives to support employees in understanding diversity and building inclusive behaviors. As we could see that organization is treats the DI very importantly in order to stay in the leading position in the market, however there is plenty to do and enough work in progress.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Slave Narratives :: American America History

Slave Narratives The Middle Passage was almost inconceivable. Hundreds upon hundreds of Africans were abducted from their homes to go on boats to America. They were stacked like books on shelves in order to bring enough Negros for a profitable slave trade. The life on the boats on the way to the New World was so bad that the Africans preferred death to their gruesome future. The conditions on the boats were hellish. The slaves on the ships were packed like sardines and chained together. Among the gripping words that Olaudah Equiano, a slave abducted when he was just eleven years old, used to describe the Middle passage are hopeless, low, brutal, and wretched. The temperature in the disease- infested rooms was inconceivable. There was no fresh air for the Negro inhabitants. The feeling of shock and isolation only added to the sorrow and horror of the situation. Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon aboard these slave ships, recalled that the "hot floor was covered with blood and mucus. It was like a slaughter-house." The sickening stench was great due to the loathsome filth from the pestilential heat. As Olaudah Equiano said, "sleep was the only [temporary] refuge." The dejection and despair of the circumstances caused many people to bitterly cry, shriek, and groan in inconceivable horror and fear. The savage cruelty of the slave traders and boat crew was ter rifying. The Negros were deprived of food and health treatments, and due to the crammed conditions this caused great waves of sickness and disease. These ships created an absolute hellish existence for the abandoned Africans aboard them. Although describable, the anguish of these people cannot be fully understood. The African's, due to these excruciating conditions, were completely and utterly terrified. During the slave trades, the noise and clamor was so frightening that many slaves attempted at running away in the tumult. On the boats, many people tried to jump overboard. Attempted suicide usually just increased the despair of the situation. Negros were punished for any attempt at escape or purposeful personal harm. If one did not eat, they were flogged until they ate the disgusting food. The slave traders expressed brutal cruelty to the slaves aboard the ships. They treated the Negros as if they were imported typical goods. They spent the least amount of effort and money in making the conditions aboard the boats tolerable in order to ensure a higher profitable outcome.

Friday, July 19, 2019

the good and bad of telecommuting :: essays research papers

The good and bad of telecommuting   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Telecommuting may be the movement of the future, which will allow more people to work away from the office. Many people see telecommuting as a way to be close to home or allow them to be connected to their organization while working abroad. While telecommuting might work for some people, telecommuting is not for everyone. There are many disadvantages; as well advantages to telecommuting which most people do not take into account. When considering telecommuting, the advantages fall for both employer and employee. The same can be said about the disadvantages of telecommuting. Advantages of Telecommuting One of the main driving factors for any company is economics and how will telecommuting allow the corporation to be profitable. The primary saving for companies embarking upon the telecommuting concept is the reduction in the amount of office space required to conduct business. Telecommuting benefits the employer because they have an expanded pool of employees. The skills of employees with commuting difficulties, childcare conflict, disabilities, geographical barriers are made available to a telecommuting employer. Companies are now starting to expanding oversees where the labor price is cheaper for telecommuting. This however can be looked at as both an advantage to the employer, and as a disadvantage to the employee. The advantage of telecommuting for some employees can be invaluable. One huge advantage an employee has when telecommuting is flexibility. Telecommuting allows for increased flexibility to coordinate work schedules with personal and family priorities. Flexible working arrangements improve quality and work done (Dudman, 2001). Achieving a balance between work and personal duties can help individuals gain more control over their lives. Often overlooked is the impact telecommuting has on the environment. One great advantage for the environment is the conservation of energy. With a great deal of energy is required to produce a vast amount of transportation vehicles such as automobiles, buses and subways. The fuel required to operate these vehicles would be reduced. An employee also is also a great consumer of energy, once at an office, the office building has heating, cooling, and lighting needs. When magnified, the energy use can be great. Whereas working from home requires only a minimal amount of energy use for heating, cooling, and lighting needs. For every advantage, most of the time there are disadvantages associated with it. Disadvantages of Telecommuting One huge disadvantage that employers face with the use of telecommuting is losing direct control over the employees.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Love Conquers All in Eudora Weltys A Worn Path Essay -- Worn Path ess

Love Conquers All in A Worn Path      Ã‚  Ã‚   Love is a strong force. Love can make a person do strange and sometimes heroic things. Eudora Welty introduces us to Phoenix Jackson in "A Worn Path," a story about the love that a woman feels for her grandson. Through the actions of Phoenix Jackson, the reader learns that love can conquer anything. This theme is demonstrated through Phoenix's determination, her ability to overcome obstacles, and her reaction to the employees at the clinic.    Phoenix Jackson is an old woman. The politically correct term "elderly" does not accurately describe just how old she is. She does not see well anymore, she walks with a cane to assist her unsteady gait, and she occasionally imagines objects that are not truly there. Despite her age and the frailtie... ...strong. She makes this treacherous trip all the way into town to get his medicine so that he may live another six months, and she still has to make the journey in reverse to get it back home to him.    Work Cited Welty, Eudora.   "A Worn Path"   Literature and the Writing Process.   Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X Day, and Robert Funk.   5th ed.   Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1999.   363-368.

San Francisco: The City that Never Sleeps

Everybody knows the old saying that ‘you never really know a person until you live with them'. Well, this also applies to visiting other countries, because I have always had an idea in my head about what kind of city San Francisco would be. I have seen various pictures in holiday brochures of the Golden Gate Bridge, Fisherman's Wharf and of course, the famous Powell and Mason line Cable Cars. Not only is the city about the famous landmarks and sites everybody has heard of, to me it was about a whole lot more and I do not think that anybody truly knows a place until they have lived in the heart of it for more than two weeks. Regretfully, I only spent two weeks in the city, and I felt as though there was still plenty I had to learn about it. People always seem to associate the state of California with plenty of sunshine, hardly any rain and generally being a warm if not hot climate. I was no different. Therefore, when I stepped off of the aeroplane and felt a cold blast of wind as I walked through the courtesy tunnel, I was fairly shocked. I did not expect to feel the cold whilst I was in California, but that was just the beginning of unexpected things to come. In all honesty I should have begun my travels with an open mind, but I thought I knew what San Francisco would be like and through fault of my own I did not expect anything else. I had visited the United States on three separate occasions before I decided to embark on San Francisco and I had never actually travelled to the western coast of America so this was new territory for me. There is supposed to be a clear divide between the East and West coasts of America and thus knowing this, it was up to me to distinguish what these factors were. The fact that I had been to the country before certainly helped me a lot, especially at the airport. Many visitors from Europe who have not visited the United States before, would be alarmed at the amount of questions security ask whilst getting their passport stamped. This just goes to show that the American's do not just let anybody into their country and they have got to be certain that everybody who has not got a visa to live and work in the country has visited for recreational purposes only. I know that security has been stepped up since the attacks on September 11th, but when the passport control officer asked me, ‘Why are you visiting the USA? , ‘How long will you be staying? ‘, and ‘Have you visited before? ‘, it made me feel like a criminal for being in their country. At the time I felt like I had been interrogated for no reason, but looking back on it, I see that it was only for my increased safety whilst I was visiting that they had to ask those questions and they did ask everybody. Ever since I can remember, I have always thought it was only the English that constantly talked about the weather. I was not expecting to hear about it non-stop whilst I was in San Francisco. However, I soon found out the reason behind it; I was actually visiting the city in the hottest weeks it had ever seen, I could not believe my luck. The cold blast of air I had felt whilst stepping off of the plane must have been the air conditioning, I breathed a big sigh of relief as I realised that the California I had been dreaming of might actually become a reality. I had booked into a youth hostel for the first three nights of my stay and having never stayed in one before I really had no idea what it would be like. As soon as I realised the taxi had pulled up outside the hostel, I began to worry. It looked nothing like the pictures I had seen on the internet, it was situated in a desolate street and a man was sitting on the steps outside with a cigarette hanging out of his mouth. I honestly would have used all my spending money to stay in a respectable hotel for the rest of the trip if it had meant that I did not have to stay in the hostel. However, I was persuaded to give it a try for one night and I was given the chance to decide what to do after that. Keen to get out of the hostel I went for a walk on that first night to get an idea of how far we were from all the places I wanted to visit. To my horror, it seemed that nobody went for walks in the city, especially not at night anyhow. We were not staying far from Market Street, which is the main street in the city and it literally spans from one end of the city to the other and eventually ends at the Ferry Building next to the Bay Bridge. Having read about Market Street whilst doing my research, I was glad I was staying within walking distance, because that is the street where you can catch the streetcars and the BART (Bay Area Rapid Transport), which is the equivalent to the London Underground. Knowing that I was within walking distance of all the major transport links made me feel better and I decided that the next day I would take the Cable Car to Fisherman's Wharf and see what that had to offer. The Cable Cars are the only vehicles of their kind still in operation and are considered to be National Landmarks. Travelling on a Cable Car was at the top of my list of things to see and do whilst I was visiting San Francisco, therefore it had to be one of the first things I did. Seeing the city the next day, when the sun was beaming and more people were walking the streets made all the difference. I just could not believe how many homeless people there were on the streets though, with all of their worldly possessions packed into a shopping trolley they wandered up and down market street begging for money. Compared to London and New York, it seemed to me that San Francisco had a serious problem with the amount of homeless people living on the city's streets. It was not until the end of my trip that I found out, that the council of San Francisco actually gives each and every registered homeless person four hundred dollars a month, so that they can afford shelter and food. Although, hardly any of the money the city gives them is actually spent of shelter and food, it goes on alcohol and drugs, which is not helping anybody. There has been uproar from the public about the situation and there have been many petitions to stop the council from giving the homeless any more money. I soon began to realise that even though I was in California, I was still in a city and all city's have their good parts and their bad parts, even more so the tourist attractions and the lived in areas. At that point I was ready to be a tourist with the rest of them, so I headed to Powell Street for a ride on one of the famous Cable Cars. It was a beautiful day so I sat on an outside seat and I did not have to fight for it and I soon realised why. I could not believe how steep the hills actually were, at one point we were so high up that I could see Alcatraz Island all the way at the bottom and the red cables of the Golden Gate Bridge just rising above the buildings in the distance. As the Cable Car descended down the hill, it went at a fairly high speed and I certainly felt the wind as it blew against us. The driver pointed out famous sites along the way, such as Chinatown on the right hand side, the famous Lombard Street as featured in many movies and then finally we came to our destination that was Fisherman's Wharf. Built in 1900, Fisherman's Wharf is the most popular tourist attraction in San Francisco. I was not disappointed in the least when I finally arrived. I think the smell of crab and other seafood delights probably hit me before I had actually reached the Wharf, but that was just part of the experience at being there. Fisherman's Wharf was heaving with tourists, it was an unusually hot day and it seemed as though everybody had had the same idea. I had not expected the place to be so big; there were so many different piers I was not quite sure which one to visit first. However, it was soon decided that we should visit the San Francisco museum at Pier 45, which was also home to the US submarine USS Pampanito. The museum was no ordinary museum, since it was made out to look like an old Victorian arcade. It was crammed full of old wooden machines that worked if a quarter was dropped in and once the money had been collected the machines would come to life, considering the age of the contraptions it was quite amazing that they still worked. Unfortunately the trip around the USS Pampanito was not scheduled for that particular day so we then headed on to Pier 39. This was a thoroughly modern area of Fisherman's Wharf and to me it seemed as if it had only been designed with tourists in mind. According to the guidebook, Pier 39 is San Francisco's number one attraction and I can actually see why the book would say this, since it certainly does have a lot to offer to keep both adults and children entertained. There were the usual boutiques and memorabilia stores and of course no American city would be complete without a famous Hard Rock Cafi, but the one thing that could have kept me entertained for hours was just around the corner. I could not believe my eyes when all I could see there in the water right in front of me was more than one hundred sea lions sunbathing on floating rafts. It was like nothing I had ever seen before, not even Sea World could compete with the sea lions at Pier 39. It seemed unimaginable that just a few hours previous and not even 5 miles away I had been alarmed by the amount of homeless people and street beggars, yet there I was staring at over one hundred sea lions housed within a small dock and I was not sure what surprised me the most. Being Saint Patrick' day the very next day, I prepared myself for a long day. I had heard on the grapevine that the American's love to celebrate on Saint Patrick's Day and I was certain that this one would not be any different. I think that the American people are very open-minded when it comes to culture, race and sexuality, but I found even more so in San Francisco. There are so many different cultures within the city and they even have designated areas of the city in which they live. The obvious one being Chinatown, but the North Beach area is home to many Italian-American's, the Castro area is renowned for its Gay and Lesbian scene, Ocean Beach is known for its Japanese culture and the Irish fit in anywhere in between. That is why it did not surprise me that on Saint Patrick's Day, a day that the Irish would be doing the most celebrating it would seem, the American's were doing their best to outdo them. After talking to many people who actually work in San Francisco, the current trend is to live elsewhere and travel into work each day. The most popular areas to live are either Oakland, which is over the eight and a half mile long Bay Bridge, or Sausalito that is in the other direction and across the Golden Gate Bridge. Having taken a trip over the Golden Gate Bridge and seeing the city from a different angle, I could certainly see why it might be tempting to live in the quieter towns and enjoy the hustle and bustle of going to work each morning. It was like entering a different country as soon as we had crossed the Golden Gate Bridge and drove through Marin County. Even the weather had changed so drastically in that short distance; the temperature must have risen by twenty degrees Fahrenheit at least. We were heading towards the town of Sonoma and Napa Valley for some wine tasting, a far cry from the busy city that was San Francisco. Sonoma is regarded as the birthplace of California viticulture and the wine industry there is closely tied to the Spanish Missionaries that found San Francisco in 1823 and in fact it used to be the state capital for a while. The town itself was built around a square and it looked so clean and pristine, it was hard to comprehend that the city that never stands still was only forty miles away. Back on the road again and heading towards Napa Valley, I just sat there taking in the beautiful scenery, I really could not believe that a place could be so different. The divide between city and country really stood out in California and it was hard for me to decide which I liked the most. Just one main road went from Sonoma to Napa, with huge vineyards either side of the road it was easy to see why it was called ‘Wine Country'. The size of the vineyards amazed me; the plots of land and the size of their houses were huge. It really was something I had never seen before, well the English are not really well known wine makers so I suppose there has never been a chance for me to see it. A trip to Napa would not have been complete without a touch of wine tasting so our first stop was at the Sequoia Grove Ranch, a huge working ranch where you can pay five dollars for four tastes; two whites and two reds. The price of wine by the bottle anywhere in California is so expensive compared to England, even the Californian wine; therefore I did not make a purchase. The next visit was to the film director Francis Ford Coppola's ranch, named Niebaum-Coppola. The sheer size of this vineyard was one to blow you away, the elegance and style which pour out of the buildings is remarkable. It was clear that somebody extremely rich owned this vineyard and it was also a small museum in honour of the film director since there were a lot of exhibits in the hallway. Lots of memorabilia from his films were hung in cabinets around the galleries and this to me made the experience of wine tasting more exciting, just knowing I was visiting in Francis Ford Coppola's vineyard. It seems that the man has a lot to do with the state of California, obviously he has done a lot of work in Hollywood, but with his ranch in Napa and he has also shot one of his films in a downtown San Francisco diner which I visited later on in my trip. The film was called, ‘American Graffiti', and was about teenagers growing up in the rock and roll era, but some of the scenes were set in Mel's Diner on Mission Street, San Francisco. After leaving Napa we headed for the outlet stores. If there were something the American's know how to do properly, it would be shopping. Because, there in the middle of the countryside was a huge outlet shopping mall, with every brand name you could ever imagine at extremely good prices. I thought it was just San Francisco that was built around shopping malls and boutiques, but I was wrong, since even in the country they still have time to build a huge mall. That is what I found whilst being in San Francisco for two weeks, most American's do not like to stay at home, and they tend to go out more. Even after a day at work, it seems that they would rather go out for a meal than cook it at home and this was just the way of life for people in the city. Although according to some locals, American's do not walk anywhere they drive to their destination or they travel on the local transport system. Not me though, I walked everywhere and I did not see the problem with it, I thought at first it may be because of the people on the streets, but they were no problem to me. I decided that it must be because American's have got used to being lazy and taking the easy option, which in my view was probably more accurate. One thing was for sure; they certainly know good food when they taste it. That same night I headed into Chinatown for something to eat and I seriously could have been in China for all I knew, even the street signs were in Chinese. It was a very lively place, lights and noise wherever you turned. We were going to a restaurant called the ‘House of Nung Ho' and the food was supposed to be out of this world. Whenever I have been to a Chinese restaurant in the past, there has always been a candle of the table, knives and forks wrapped up in a napkin, but when I arrived at the ‘House of Nung Ho', I was not expecting it to be a cafi lit up with strip flourecsent lights. There was even a queue outside for this tiny back street cafi, a good sign I thought, but I was still a bit concerned that this was not the type of restaurant I had been expecting it to be. Once inside however, we had ordered our food and they cooked it right in front of me, with a bottle of ‘Tsingtao' Chinese beer in my hand, I was looking forward to the food. After talking with the owner, he pointed out a framed picture on the wall of Jamie Oliver, the English chef. He had visited the ‘House of Nung Ho' and had written a glorious review of the place in the local good food guide, and he was right, the food was delicious and it made me see that first appearances are not always what they seem. I am glad I decided to queue to get into the restaurant; it was well worth the wait. Unfortunately the good weather looked as though it had passed by the second week and it was clear that I was going to have to find something to do which meant that I would not be caught out in the rain. It had been suggested to me that I make a visit to the ‘Metreon', which is a Sony Entertainment Centre. Home to a twelve screen cinema, an IMAX theatre and several gadget shops and restaurants, it did not even seem possible that I had walked past the building many time not realising what it was. Set within the financial district of San Francisco, the building is fairly inconspicuous surrounded by huge skyscrapers. Yet, once inside the building it is not easy imagining how I missed it. Hundreds of people crowding around games consoles waiting to try out a brand new game, a mile long queue for the cinema and the IMAX theatre, the place was heaving. I had never seen a place so busy, yet from the outside the building did not look like anything special. Those that wanted to escape the hubbub that was going on inside the ‘Metreon', were sat quietly in the gardens that surrounded it. The Yerba Buena gardens provide tranquillity for the people who want to escape the noise of the city and just relax for an hour on their dinner break. I was beginning to see a likeness to New York within San Francisco, since the intercultural relations were more or less the same and Central Park offers New York the same sort of tranquillity that the Yerba Buena Gardens do to San Francisco. Yet, all the while that I was making these comparisons and finding similarities between the two, I found that San Francisco is far more relaxed and laid back than New York or any other city that I have visited. I do not know whether it is the people that live there or the way the city is governed, but for some reason laid back nature works for the city. Even the homeless make ends meet, they have their own community and get on with the life they lead, that is the one thing I wish had not bothered me if the first few days in the city. In the end I learnt not to expect anything during my trip, because it always turned out to surprise me and mainly in a good way. Previous visits to America had led me to believe that the American's were extremely fake and narrow minded, yet whilst visiting San Francisco I saw no evidence of that. Maybe that is where the east and west coast divide tends to lie, since many holidaymakers from Europe mainly visit the eastern coast of America because it is closer. Tourism brings in a lot of money to the United States from Europe and maybe that is why they try so hard in places like Florida and New York to make you feel welcome; but it just comes across as being too pushy and fake. However, a city like San Francisco with its open-mindedness to sexuality, race and religion was going to be entirely different from the beginning and it certainly was. The whole temperament of the city flows like the water around it, calm and gentle yet perhaps a little rough around the edges. Overall, If I could have changed my trip for the better, I would have become a commuter for two weeks and stayed across from the city and travelled in if and when I wanted to. However, I am glad that I stayed right within the heart of the city and witnessed the good things and the bad, yet most of the time there was hardly any bad. From what I saw of California, I liked very much and would not hesitate to go back at any given chance. I think it is important to see more than one aspect of a country and given the chance I would like to explore the state much more thoroughly, perhaps visiting Steinbeck Country and Yosemite Valley. With enough time and money I think if you really want to explore California it can be done, but finding the above is not easy unfortunately. I recommend that San Francisco should be on everybody's list of places to see before they die, it truly is a remarkable city and if its variety that you want, this place has it.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Ethical Theories Essay

It is vital for businesses to to a lower placestand the greatness of morals in this dynamic environment. Organizations that be committed to long term winner recognize and realize that creating a coating where respectable behaviors ar rewarded and encouraged is the net key to survival and growth. match to Joseph 2003, business morals refers to clear standards and norms that help employees to break obligation from wrong behavior at work, while in the contrastive chip in honourable theories atomic number 18 theories that involve culture what is safe and wrong and doing the decent affair moreover the f shape that the right fri terra firma uply occasion is not straight forward brings in the subject of ethical dilemmas. Normally ethical theories posterior be broken up into deuce separate groups, teleological and deontological. teleological theories tactile strait-lacedty to the rightness of actions and ar dictated by the descend of slap-up consequences t hey receive and focus on outcomes that argon establish on ends. In teleological theories these actions are erectified by the justness of what the actions achieve, kind of than round feature of the actions themselves.In other words, decisions that eudaimonia the overall goal and/or objective is incarnately believed as a way to justify what is right or wrong. The philosophy of utilitarianism is 1 of the more or little normally utilize and accepted ethical theories in the teleological group and is linked to Jeremy Bentham and seat S Mills. According to Crane and Matten (2010) utilitarianism is be as an action which is morally right if it results in the greatest nitty-gritty of good for the greatest amount of multitude affected by the action. This principle focuses solely on the consequences of an action and it weighs the good results against the bad results. It alike encourages the action that results in the greatest amount of good for all people involved. Utilitariani sm is genuinely powerful in business since it puts at the centre of the moral decision a variable which measures the value of an action. Deontological by air to teleological, consequences are irrelevant when determining what is right and wrong. Deontological speculation states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma. This means that a somebody get out follow his or her obligations to some other various(prenominal) or society be arrive at up retention ones duty is what is con fontred ethically correct. For instance, a deontologist pass on always keep his promises to a accomplice and bequeath follow the honor.A individual who follows this scheme will produce genuinely consistent decisions since they will be establish on the individuals slump duties. Deontological ethical systems are concerned with the nature of an action that is universe judged, whereas teleological resolve the consequences of the act rather than the act itself. Founded by Immanuel Kant, Kantian moral philosophy is the iconic bureau of deontological theories. Kantianism emphasizes the principles behind actions rather than an actions results. Acting rightly thus requires being motivated by proper universal proposition principles that treat e reallyone with respect. When youre motivated by the right principles, you overcome your animal instincts and act ethically. Until the great mass of the people shall be filled with the sense of responsibility for each others welfare, social justness after part never be attain (Helen Keller). buns Rawls, an Ameri fecal matter moral and insurance policy-making philosopher, whose major work, A Theory of Justice, had a profound impact on ethics and semi governmental theory, believed there essential be an alternative notion of judge than the view of the Utilitarianism where the action that benefits the greatest is the outdo. Rawls believed that the principles of justness and judge among individuals mustiness be fair.John Rawls, social justice theory seeks to create a society where the principles of justice and fairness are fork outd and to ensure the protection of personify recover to liberties, rights, and opportunities, as well as fetching care of the least advantaged members of society. The concept is found around a social contract, which is the automatic agreement among people with each some other and the government which results in an organized society. On the other hand, the philosophy of virtue ethics, which principally deals with the ways in which a person should live, has puzzled philosophers from the beginning of age. Recognized as one of the greatest philosophers in the world, Aristotle explains virtue as a character singularity that manifests itself in habitual action. This theory claims that virtues are traits of character that you must practice actively so that they sire a better of you and shapes you into becoming a gross(a) ethic al person. So when you are a virtuous person, you will lead a well-heeled fulfilled life. Since there are umteen a(prenominal) contrasting interpretations regarding a precise interpretation of virtue, Aristotle theory argues that the individual needs concrete wisdom, which is what a person needs in order to live well.On the confounding side there is Milton Friedman, who is known as one of the greatest and around powerful economists and public intellectuals in theworld. He was a firm believer of free- grocery store capitalism which would in turn contribute and adequately make out wealth throughout the nation. Conservative economists, much(prenominal) as Milton Friedman, claim that business is most responsible when it makes profit efficiently, not when it misapplies its efficacy on social projects, Friedman locates that it is in the best interests for firms to maximize profits. With this Friedman is invoking a deontological, not consequentialist, theory. A consequentialis t reading Friedmans work would look to identify an ends justifies the means sense of reasoning. Friedman notwithstanding makes clear the means of achieving the ends are important, as profits need to be maximized inwardly the regulatory environment and main focus. along the same steps as Friedman we constitute Friedrich Hayek, who follows the libertarianism theory. Libertarianism is a set of related policy-making philosophies that uphold liberty as the highest political end.This includes emphasis the primary of individual liberty, political freedom, and voluntary association. This theory and Hayek stress that the market will take care of itself, the elevated market is self-regulating and it limits government interpolation and/or involvement in the marketplace. Libertarianism expresses that people restrain certain natural rights and privation of those rights is immoral. The entitlement theory just like Hayek, overly supports a market system with modest to none government int ervention, this theory of justice is known by Robert Nozick. Nozicks entitlement theory is based on the following threesome principles one, a person who acquires a attribute in accordance with the principle of justice in acquisition is authorize to that belongings second, a person who acquires a holding in accordance with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone else authorise to the holding, is entitled to the holding and third, no one is entitled to a holding except by repeated applications of 1 and 2 (Anarchy, State, and U baksheeshia 1974, p.151). According to the entitlement theory, people should only possess what they are actually entitled to jibe to these principles. numerous of these theories are seen throughout the moorages from the book Ethics and the Conduct of Business by John R. Boatright. Case 3.2 Exporting Pollution is perfective aspect example that includes incompatible perspectives and insights into such theories.The case summarizes as follows, Re bbeca Wright, an assistant to the vice chair of environmental affairs at Americhem, savors the probability to apply hertraining to public policy analysis that her bon ton faces. She is convinced that cost-benefit analysis, her specialty, provides a rational decision-making tool that cuts through ain feelings and lays bare the hard economic realities. Jim Donnelly, Rebeccas boss, started her with a draft of a memorandum that she thought would create a furore if it were ever made public. Jim is preparing a memo of where to establish the companys spic-and-span location of their chemical ingraft. The main difficulty is that atmospheric pollutants caused by the fix will produce a persistent fog and some of the particles birth been known to cause liver crabmeat in a small portion of people exposed. tetrad main points about this location are further discussed of what would happen if this new-made innovationt opened. Milton Friedmans, Kant, and deontological ethics can be s een in this case.Friedmans perspective for this case would have Rebecca to follow her duties because this would be doing what would bring the most profits and doing what the stakeholders would want. For deontological and Kants perspective on the other hand, it may be argued two ways. Rebecca must follow her duties regardless of the consequences she is running(a) towards, because she has a specific duty she must perform. If she follows the rules she would benefit herself, the company, and all the stakeholders. At the time Kantian ethics still implies that one must follow moral law regardless of the consequences. So because this new plant may cause liver cancer and inflict pain on others, Rebecca can disagree with the companys decision on manufacturing the new plant. For this case, it depends on which side Rebecca wishes to stand as to what is ethical or not. Whether to support or not the body structure of the new plant has ethical attributes with both benefits and consequences.Lav ish Pay at Harvard is other example great example that applies to some of the theories explained. goof R. Meyer, the head of Harvard Universitys $20 billion endowment fund was under pressure to change the stick outment plan for the funds top investment managers imputable to the high amount of endowment the top five employees were receiving. A few Harvard alumni protested, their collective concern was that they thought the amount of cash being paying to those folks was obscene. The requital of the endowment fund managers far exceeded the salaries of Harvard capability member and administrators, including the president, who made around fractional a million dollars. Also, the 5% acclivity n tuition for Harvard students in 2004 was equalto the $0 million p encourage to the two highest earners. Although Harvard has the self-aggrandisingst university endowment, the salaries and bonuses compensable to the managers greatly exceeded the compensation paid at any other school. In response to the critics, Mr. Meyer noted that the alumni failed to recognize that the amount of bonuses paid does not add up to the value they are giving the university.The schools large endowment was used in many ways to benefit students such as the coverage of 72% financial aid for undergraduate students, no tuition for families earning less than $60,0000, and it also enable the school to subjoin the faculty in growing areas and to pad facilities. In the end, Harvard decided to cap the compensation of fund managers. The result was that Jack Meyer and his group of managers left to start their own investment companies, at which many could earn 10 times than they did at Harvard. Teleological and Utilitarianism theories are two great theories that can be applied to this case. With both of these theories we can argue that the amount of money that was being used to pay these managers/employees was a reasonable pay due to what they were giving back to the college. Millions of students and faculty were benefiting from Mr. Meyer and his team, which thats the main focus on both of these theories actions are right if they are useful or are for the benefit of the majority and the end justifies the means. Although they were getting paid large amounts of money their return on the student population had a high impact. Some of Nozicks beliefs can be seen in Case 3.4 A mucilaginous Situation. Kent Graham is an circular manager for Dura-Stick estimate Products, which has a well-deserved reputation for quality, technical knowledge, and operate that enables the company to command a exchange premium price for its products in a very competitive market.Kent has been with Dura Stick for 2 years and his accomplishments have been going downward-sloping and fears his time with company may end leaving his wife and children to provide for. Kent calls Jack Olson at Spray-On Inc. about landing a large account. Jack informs Kent of a new product of theirs they would need labels fo r, which Jack promises they can do. Although, Kent later finds out Dura-Stick cannot make the want products so must use another company and mark up the prices so Dura-Stick can still make profit. Kent uses the companys image as leverage to convince Jack to take the deal. This government agency can be argued in different ways for Kent and Dura Stick. Kent knows that he has to land a big timeaccount and he knows he must do so in order to provide for his family. Though he does lie to customer, he isnt doing anything illegal. Nozicks belief of just acquisition is an excellent example in this situation. As long as the seller had rightful ownership, the transaction is just and proper, but if not, then possession is not proper and victims have to be compensated or transaction undone.In contradictive of Nozick, Aristotles theory of virtue would argue that this case is incisively what a person with virtuous ethics shouldnt do. Virtues are traits of character that you must practice activel y so that they become a part of you and shapes you into becoming a virtuous ethical person. Because of his actions, Kent is putting in jeopardy his honesty, loyalty, self-control virtues, shaping him in the wrong ethical approach. These theories emphasize different aspects of an ethical dilemma and lead to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. plenty can use these theories and the wisdom of these philosophers to determine what is ethical and what is not. Though all decisions have their advantages and disadvantages, by applying this knowledge one can come closer to making the right ethical decision.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Peer Pressure Speech Essay

Peer Pressure Speech Essay

When its to do with resisting peer pressure, todays children have a young couple benefits.But you really have to stop and think for a moment. Is what you are knowing doing a complete and true definition of you? Whose life are you really leading?There are two kinds of peer pressure. The Positive kind, and the Negative kind. The positive kind of peer pressure is, being pressured or convinced to do a certain task that you may not have had the confidence to complete or to do yourself.Peer pressure may have an effect.They push for you to have JUST ONE drink. To smoke JUST ONE cigarette†¦. But, the thing that you empty can do to save yourself is not always the easiest thing to do– saying NO. But just saying no may or may not be the end of the problem.

Peer pressure cannot be termed bad.Maybe they control give in because they want to appear grown up. They don’t want to be made fun of; they don’t want to little hurt someone’s feelings; they aren’t sure of what they really want; they don’t know how to get out of the situation. We all good feel it! We all do it! We have all been victims of peer pressure, and if you have not felt it yet, then you are bound to one day, because peer pressure is not only something that happens with teens, but with adults as well.Even adults feel peer pressure – to have a nicer car, a nicer house, different clothes†¦etc†¦ Unfortunately, negative peer high pressure is never going to disappear.Peer pressure, is.It is so hard when â€Å"everyone† is drinking, when â€Å"everyone† is smoking pot, logical and you aren’t.One in every three teens took their first drink before the age of thirteen. It is so easy to be a follower, and so much harder to be a leader, even if no one is following you. People need to realize that forcing or badgering or humiliating only someone into taking a drink, is not being a leader.

Its defined as the impact a group has on an individual.Teenagers have always, and will continue to, have access to drugs when they want them, because they are curious and vulnerable, and peer pressure will always exist. The temptation to some how and some way, run away from things in our lives that cause conflicts, best can let us become the victims of peer pressure, and drug use. Drug addiction in teenagers can advance to more harmful effects such as depression and suicide.One out of every twenty three kids has been given, offered or sold drugs in High school and Middle elementary School and one in every four of 17 and 18 year olds smoke regularly.Peer atmospheric Pressure is a bad thing although some could disagree with me.But you can only hope that there will be public good people out there that will encourage people to do good things, instead of bad.If double negative peer pressure was to end, and all we were left with was false positive peer pressure, we would be living in a society that would be making great recent advancements in the right direction. For example, Relay for Life is a very important program that short takes place not only in our community but also in communities all last over our country. Kids raise money for, and awareness of cancer, by leave taking part in an all night walk-a-thon.

It is.Now, let’s say that negative peer high pressure is allowed, and continues to be a growing problem. Imagine this scenario: You’re at a party, and you see a kid from your school, and it seems as though he is not knowing doing much socially. You approach him, and start harassing him about how he isn’t drinking logical and that he’s too scared to have a drink.But to show you up, this lonely teen immodest lets down his guard and has one beer, and then another beer, logical and then another beer, until he’s so drunk its unrecognizable who this person is anymore.Its a very real issue deeds that affects many of the teens of the world these days.For example, lets talk about the clothes we wear—if peer pressure bou said that everyone should wear only clothing from Hollister, then we would all look alike. Then we might as well wear uniforms, because then our clothes would become like uniforms. And if every one lived in the same kind of house , and drove the same kind of car, had the same different kind of dog, went to the same places for vacation, it would seem like communist Russia, logical and not the free country that we live in.Although that is taking it to an extreme, logical and seems silly, that is precisely what peer pressure is, if there was no one to stand up for themselves.

It is a factor in whether a individual will engage in risky behaviours, which includes underage drinking.Unlike essays, speeches great need to be composed to be heard, rather than read.Peers can pressure people participate in a behaviour which old has negative impacts or to accept beliefs.Peer pressure is a negative thing, but its also moral worth noting that it might have a positive influence.

Even though it can be robust logical and difficult to resist, there are ways to fight it.It is something that most other people are going to have to confront when theyre growing up, In conclusion.Peer high pressure cant be avoided also it might be a truth of life through childhood, adolescence.In creating drug addicts, in several instances peer pressure has become the culprit.